Hudson River School | Bibliography


The following list of sources is not intended as an exhaustive bibliography on the Hudson River School, but is meant to highlight some of the most important and recent contributions in scholarship related to the Hudson River School, broadly defined.

Hudson River School & Nineteenth-Century American Landscape Painting

Bedell, Rebecca Bailey. The Anatomy of Nature: Geology & American Landscape Painting, 1825–1875. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Cash, Sarah, and Jennifer Carson. American Paintings to 1945. Manchester: Hudson Hills Press, 2011.

Cleveland, David Adams. A History of American Tonalism: 1880–1920. Manchester, VT: Hudson Hills Press, 2010.

Cooper, James F. Knights of the Brush: The Hudson River School and the Moral Landscape. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1999.

Driscoll, John Paul. All That Is Glorious Around Us: Paintings from the Hudson River School. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Earenfight, Phillip, and Nancy Siegel. Within the Landscape: Essays on Nineteenth-Century American Art and Culture. Carlisle, PA: Trout Gallery, Dickinson College, 2005.

Gallati, Barbara Dayer, Linda S. Ferber, Ella M. Foshay, and Kimberly Orcutt. Making American Taste: Narrative Art for a New Democracy. New York: New-York Historical Society, 2011.

Harvey, Eleanor Jones. The Painted Sketch: American Impressions from Nature, 1830–1880. Dallas, TX: Dallas Museum of Art in association with H.N. Abrams, 1998.

Holochwost, Catherine. “Enchanted Machines Vision and Imagination in Nineteenth-Century American Painting.” PhD diss., University of Delaware, 2011.

Howat, John K. American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987.

Kelly, Franklin, and Robert Wilson Torchia. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1996.

Kinsey, Joni. Plain Pictures: Images of the American Prairie. Washington, DC: Published for the University of Iowa Museum of Art by the Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.

Kloss, William. This Tranquil Land: Hudson River Paintings from the Hersen Collection. Seattle: Frye Art Museum, 2000.

Kornhauser, Elizabeth Mankin, Amy Ellis, and Maureen Miesmer. Hudson River School: Masterworks from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. New Haven: London, 2003.

Kort, Pamela, and Max Hollein. Darwin: Art and the Search for Origins. Cologne: Wienand, 2009.

Maddox, Kenneth W. In Search of the Picturesque: Nineteenth Century Images of Industry Along the Hudson River Valley. Annandale-on-Hudson, NY: Bard College, 1983.

Miller, Angela L. The Empire of the Eye: Landscape Representation and American Cultural Politics, 1825–1875. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

New-York Historical Society, and Linda S. Ferber. The Hudson River School: Nature and the American Vision. New York: Skira Rizzoli, 2009.

Novak, Barbara. American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

O’Toole, Judith H. Different Views in Hudson River School Painting. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.

Phillips, Sandra S., and Linda Weintraub. Charmed Places: Hudson River Artists and Their Houses, Studios, and Vistas. New York: Edith C. Blum Art Institute, Bard College, and Vassar College Art Gallery in association with H.N. Abrams, 1988.

Prown, Jules David. Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Ruge, Valice F. Life Along the Hudson: Wood Engravings of Hudson River Subjects from Harper’s Weekly, 1859–1903. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1994.

Strazdes, Diana J. 2009. ““Wilderness and Its Waters”: A Professional Identity for the Hudson River School.” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 7 (no. 2): 333–62.

Sullivan, Mark White. The Hudson River School: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.

Veith, Gene Edward. Painters of Faith: The Spiritual Landscape in Nineteenth-Century America. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2001.

Wadsworth Atheneum, and Theodore E. Stebbins. The Hudson River School: 19th Century American Landscapes in the Wadsworth Atheneum. Hartford: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1976.

Wild, Peter, Donald A. Barclay, and James H. Maguire. Different Travellers, Different Eyes: Artists’ Narratives of the American West, 1820–1920. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University Press, 2001.

Wilmerding, John. The Artist’s Mount Desert: American Painters on the Maine Coast. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.


Sweeney, J. Gray, “Inventing Luminism: ‘Labels are the Dickens,’” Oxford Art Journal 26, no. 2 (2003), 93–120.

Wallach, Alan. “Rethinking ‘Luminism’: Taste, Class, and Aestheticizing Tendencies in Mid-Nineteenth-Century American Landscape Painting.” In The Cultured Canvas: New Perspectives on American Landscape Painting, edited by Nancy Siegel, 115–47. Dartmouth: University of New England Press, 2011.

Wilmerding, John, and Lisa Fellows Andrus. American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850–1875: Paintings, Drawings, Photographs. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1980.


Becker, Jack. “A Taste for Landscape: Studies in American Tonalism.” PhD diss, University of Delaware, 2003.

Corn, Wanda M. The Color of Mood: American Tonalism, 1880–1910. San Francisco: M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, 1972.

Davidson, Gail S., et al. Frederic Church, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran: Tourism and the American Landscape. New York: Bulfinch Press, 2006.

Gerdts, William H., Diana Dimodica Sweet, and Robert R. Preato. Tonalism: An American Experience. New York: Grand Central Art Galleries Art Education Association, 1982.

Albert Bierstadt

Anderson, Nancy K., Linda S. Ferber, and Helena Wright. Albert Bierstadt: Art & Enterprise. New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with the Brooklyn Museum, 1990.

Asher B. Durand

Ferber, Linda S, ed. Kindred Spirits: Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape. New York: Brooklyn Museum, 2007.

Ferber, Linda S., et al. The American Landscapes of Asher B. Durand (1796–1886). Madrid : Fundacion Juan March ; New York : In association with New-York Historical Society, 2010.

Thomas Cole

Felker, Tracie. “First Impressions: Thomas Cole’s Drawings of His 1825 Trip up the Hudson River.” American Art Journal 24, no. 1/2 (1992), 60–93.

Powell, Earl A. Thomas Cole. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1990.

Truettner, William H., et al. Thomas Cole: Landscape into History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Wallach, Alan. “Thomas Cole’s ‘River in the Catskills’ as Antipastoral.” The Art Bulletin 84 (June, 2002), 334–50.

Sanford Robinson Gifford

Gifford, Sanford Robinson, Kevin J. Avery, and Franklin Kelly. Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003.

Weiss, Ila. Poetic Landscape: The Art and Experience of Sanford R. Gifford. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1987.

William Stanley Haseltine

Simpson, Marc, Andrea Henderson, and Sally Mills. Expressions of Place: The Art of William Stanley Haseltine. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 1992.

Martin Johnson Heade

Benfey, Christopher E. G. A Summer of Hummingbirds: Love, Art, and Scandal in the Intersecting Worlds of Emily Dickinson, Mark Twain, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Martin Johnson Heade. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

Cash, Sarah. Ominous Hush: The Thunderstorm Paintings of Martin Johnson Heade. Fort Worth, TX: Amon Carter Museum, 1994.

Favis, Roberta Smith. Martin Johnson Heade in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Novak, Barbara, and Timothy A. Eaton. Martin Johnson Heade: A Survey, 1840–1900. West Palm Beach, FL: Eaton Fine Art, 1996.

Stebbins, Theodore E. Martin Johnson Heade. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1999.

Stebbins, Theodore E., Janet L. Comey, and Karen E. Quinn. The Life and Work of Martin Johnson Heade: A Critical Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Thomas H. Hotchkiss

Novak, Barbara, and Tracie Felker. Dreams and Shadows: Thomas H. Hotchkiss in Nineteenth-Century Italy. New York: The New-York Historical Society in association with Universe Books, 1993.

George Inness

Bell, Adrienne Baxter. George Inness and the Visionary Landscape. New York: National Academy of Design, 2003.

Bell, Adrienne Baxter, and George Inness. George Inness: Writings and Reflections on Art and Philosophy. New York: G. Braziller, 2006.

DeLue, Rachael Ziady. George Inness and the Science of Landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Ireland, LeRoy. The Works of George Inness; An Illustrated Catalogue Raisonné. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965.

Mitchell, Mark DeSaussure. George Inness in Italy. New Haven: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale Univ. Press, 2011.

Simpson, Marc, and Wanda M. Corn. Like Breath on Glass: Whistler, Inness, and the Art of Painting Softly. Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2008.

Thomas Moran

Anderson, Nancy K. Thomas Moran. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1997.

Clark, Carol. Thomas Moran: Watercolors of the American West: Text and Catalogue Raisonné. Austin: Published for the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art by the University of Texas Press, 1980.

Kinsey, Joni. Thomas Moran and the Surveying of the American West. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Worthington Whittredge

Gordon, Cheryl Cibulka. Quiet Places: The American Landscapes of Worthington Whittredge: Catalogue. Washington, DC: Adams Davidson Galleries, 1982.

Janson, Anthony F. Worthington Whittredge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

———. “Worthington Whittredge: The Development of a Hudson River Painter, 1860–1868.” American Art Journal 11 (April, 1979), 71–84.

Whittredge, Worthington, John I. H. Baur, and S. Keck. The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, 1820–1910. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum Press, 1942.